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39 Spring Framework Interview Questions

Updated: Dec 17, 2023


Spring Framework Interview Questions

Are you looking for Java spring interview questions? Boost your interview preparation with our in-depth collection of Spring Framework Interview Questions. Dive into Dependency Injection, Application Context, Java Configuration, and Annotation-based Configuration with Component Scanning. Equip yourself with the knowledge and confidence to excel in your Spring interview. Explore the essential questions and answers you need to succeed!

1.) What is spring framework? Answer: The Spring Framework is a comprehensive and open-source application framework for building enterprise-level Java applications. Developed by Pivotal Software (formerly known as SpringSource), Spring provides a wide range of features and tools that simplify and streamline the development of Java applications, particularly those on the enterprise level.


2.) What is the Spring Framework's Dependency Injection Container? Answer: The Spring Framework's Dependency Injection Container is a core component that manages and injects dependencies into Spring beans.


3.) What is IoC in spring? Answer: In IoC, the control of a program's flow is shifted from the program itself to an external container. In Spring, this means that the framework manages the instantiation and injection of dependencies, inverting control from the developer to Spring.

4.) What is the role of the Application Context in Spring?

Answer: The Application Context is the central interface for providing configuration information to the Spring container. It manages the life cycle of beans and provides services like dependency injection.


5.) Differentiate between BeanFactory and ApplicationContext in Spring.

Answer: BeanFactory is the basic container interface, while ApplicationContext is a more advanced container with additional features like AOP, internationalization, and event propagation.


6.) How is the ApplicationContext loaded in a Spring application?

Answer: The ApplicationContext can be loaded using various implementations, such as ClassPathXmlApplicationContext for XML configuration files or AnnotationConfigApplicationContext for Java-based configuration.


7.) Name some built-in implementations of the ApplicationContext interface in Spring.

Answer: Examples of ApplicationContext implementations include ClassPathXmlApplicationContext, FileSystemXmlApplicationContext, and AnnotationConfigApplicationContext.


8.) How does the ApplicationContext manage the life cycle of Spring beans?

Answer: The ApplicationContext initializes, configures, and manages the life cycle of Spring beans by creating and destroying them as needed and injecting dependencies.


Core Java Programming

Java Back-End Development


Java Configuration:

9.) What is Java-based configuration in Spring?

Answer: Java-based configuration allows you to define Spring beans and their dependencies using Java classes and annotations, rather than XML configuration files.


10.) How do you enable Java-based configuration in a Spring application?

Answer: To enable Java-based configuration, you typically use the @Configuration annotation on a class and register it with the Application Context using @ComponentScan or @Import annotations.


11.) Explain the purpose of the @Bean annotation in Java-based configuration.

Answer: The @Bean annotation is used to declare a method that produces a Spring bean. The method's return value is added to the Spring container, and the bean's name is determined by the method name.


12.) What is the primary difference between XML configuration and Java-based configuration in Spring?

Answer: XML configuration uses XML files to define beans and their relationships, while Java-based configuration uses Java classes and annotations.


Annotation-based Configuration with Component Scanning:

13.) What is component scanning in Spring?

Answer: Component scanning is a feature in Spring that automatically detects and registers Spring components, such as beans, by scanning specified packages in the class path.


14.) Explain the role of the @Component annotation in Spring.

Answer: The @Component annotation is used to mark a class as a Spring bean, allowing it to be automatically discovered during component scanning.


15.) What is the purpose of the @ComponentScan annotation in Spring?

Answer: The @ComponentScan annotation is used to specify the base packages to be scanned for Spring components, enabling automatic bean discovery.


16.) How do you enable component scanning in a Spring application?

Answer: Component scanning is enabled by using the @ComponentScan annotation in a configuration class and specifying the base packages to scan.


17.) Explain the difference between @Component, @Repository, @Service, and @Controller annotations in Spring.

Answer: While all these annotations indicate that a class is a Spring bean, they are used to convey the role or purpose of the bean within the application. For example, @Repository is typically used for data access classes, while @Service is used for service classes.


18.) What is stereotype annotation in Spring?

Answer: Stereotype annotations, such as @Component, @Repository, @Service, and @Controller, are used to indicate the role or type of a class within the Spring application context.


19.) How can you specify multiple base packages for component scanning?

Answer: You can specify multiple base packages for component scanning by providing an array of package names as a parameter to the @ComponentScan annotation, like @ComponentScan(basePackages = {"com.example.package1", "com.example.package2"}).


Core Java Programming

Java Back-End Development


20.) What happens if two Spring beans have the same name in component scanning?

Answer: If two beans have the same name, it can lead to conflicts. To avoid this, you can use the @Qualifier annotation to specify which bean to inject when there are multiple candidates.


21.) Explain the purpose of the @Autowired annotation in Spring.

Answer: The @Autowired annotation is used for automatic dependency injection. It allows Spring to inject beans into other beans without the need for explicit configuration.


22.) What are the primary benefits of annotation-based configuration and component scanning in Spring?

Answer: The benefits include reduced configuration overhead, improved readability, and a more straightforward way to manage beans and their relationships.


23.) What is the @Configuration annotation used for in Java-based configuration?

Answer: The @Configuration annotation identifies a Java class as a configuration class, allowing it to define Spring beans and their relationships in a programmatic manner.


24.) Explain the usage of the @Import annotation in Java-based configuration.

Answer: The @Import annotation is used to import other configuration classes into a primary configuration class, allowing you to modularize configuration settings.


25.) What is the purpose of the @Profile annotation in Spring?

Answer: The @Profile annotation is used to specify which profiles a bean should be associated with. It allows you to conditionally load beans based on the active profiles.


26.) How do you define a default profile in Spring?

Answer: You can set a default profile using the spring.profiles.default property in the application.properties or application.yml file.


27.) What is the purpose of the @PropertySource annotation in Spring?

Answer: The @PropertySource annotation is used to specify the location of property files that contain configuration properties, which can be injected into Spring beans using @Value or other mechanisms.


28.) Explain the use of the @Value annotation in Spring.

Answer: The @Value annotation is used to inject values from properties files, system properties, or environment variables into Spring beans.


29.) How does the @ComponentScan annotation impact the class path scanning in Spring?

Answer: The @ComponentScan annotation specifies the base packages to scan for Spring components, and it initiates the process of discovering and registering beans during class path scanning.


30.) What is the purpose of the name attribute in the @Component annotation?

Answer: The name attribute allows you to specify a custom name for the bean, which can be used to reference the bean in cases where the default bean name is not suitable.


31.) What is the difference between the @Primary and @Qualifier annotations in Spring?

Answer: The @Primary annotation marks a primary bean for auto-wiring when multiple candidates are available. @Qualifier is used to specify which candidate should be injected when there are multiple options.


32.) What is the purpose of the @Lazy annotation in Spring?

Answer: The @Lazy annotation is used to indicate that a bean should be initialized only when it is first accessed, as opposed to eagerly initializing it during the container's startup.


33.) Explain the use of the @DependsOn annotation in Spring.

Answer: The @DependsOn annotation is used to specify bean dependencies explicitly, ensuring that the specified beans are initialized before the dependent bean.


34.) What is the purpose of the @Conditional annotation in Spring?

Answer: The @Conditional annotation allows you to conditionally include or exclude beans from the application context based on specified conditions.


35.) How do you enable and use component scanning for Spring Boot applications?

Answer: In Spring Boot, component scanning is enabled by default. You can place your Spring components in the same package or sub-packages as your main application class to have them automatically discovered.


36.) What is the role of the @SpringBootApplication annotation in Spring Boot?

Answer: The @SpringBootApplication annotation is a combination of several other annotations, and it is often used to define the main class of a Spring Boot application, enabling component scanning and other configuration features.


37.) How do you customize the base package for component scanning in a Spring Boot application?

Answer: You can use the @ComponentScan annotation and specify the base package explicitly to customize component scanning in a Spring Boot application.


38.) What is the purpose of the @EntityScan annotation in Spring Boot?

Answer: The @EntityScan annotation is used to specify the base packages to scan for JPA entities in Spring Boot applications.


39.) What is the difference between @ComponentScan and @EntityScan annotations in Spring Boot?

Answer: @ComponentScan is used for general component scanning, whereas @EntityScan is specifically used for scanning JPA entities when using Spring Data JPA.


These interview questions and answers cover various aspects of Spring Framework's Dependency Injection (DI) Container, Application Context, Java Configuration, and Annotation-based Configuration with Component Scanning. Use them as a resource to help you prepare for interviews and showcase your knowledge of these critical Spring concepts.


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